Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Russian: Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов, 7 May 1930 – 9 January 2019) was a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991. One of the founders of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) in 1993, he was described by its leader Gennady Zyuganov as having been the Deng Xiaoping of the party. He published books of poetry under his own name and under the pseudonyms Osenev (Осенев) and Dneprov (Днепров).Lukyanov was an early political ally of Mikhail Gorbachev, supporting his efforts in issues such as the fight against corruption and the start of reforms in the economy. However, beginning in 1987–1988, he increasingly sympathized with the party establishment, correctly foreseeing that Gorbachev's policies would lead to the Soviet collapse.
He is also known as Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov.
Lukyanov was found dead in his Moscow home on 9 January 2019, at the age of 88, after suffering from an unspecified illness. He is buried at Troyekurovskoye Cemetery in Moscow on 11 January.