Roman Polanski (Polish: Polański , pə-LAN-skee, [ˈrɔman pɔˈlaj̃skʲi] (Listen); born Raymond Thierry Liebling; 18 August 1933) is a Polish-French film director, producer, writer, and actor. Polanski is also a fugitive from the U.S. criminal justice system; he fled the country while awaiting sentencing on five criminal charges, including rape.His Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back from Paris to Kraków in 1937. Two years later, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany starting World War II and the Polanskis found themselves trapped in the Kraków Ghetto. After his mother and father were taken in raids, Polanski spent his formative years in foster homes under an adopted identity, trying to survive the Holocaust.Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water (1962), was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France. In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion (1965). In 1968, he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby (1968).
A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, and four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. Following Tate's death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth (1971) in England and Chinatown (1974) back in Hollywood.In 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl. He pleaded guilty to the lesser offence of unlawful sex with a minor. In 1978, after learning that the judge planned to reject his plea deal and impose a prison term instead of probation, he fled to Paris. A number of other women have later accused Polanski of raping them when they were teenagers. He remains the subject of an Interpol red notice issued for his arrest, and therefore rarely leaves France.In Europe, Polanski continued to make critically acclaimed films, including Tess (1979), The Pianist (2002), Oliver Twist (2005), The Ghost Writer (2010) and Carnage (2011). In 1989, Polanski married his current wife, French actress Emmanuelle Seigner. They have two children together. In 2018, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences voted to expel Polanski from its membership.
He is also known as Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański and Polanski.